In pure water systems, electrolytic conductivity or resistivity measurement is the most common indicator of ionic contamination.
Ultrapure water is easily contaminated by traces of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere passing through tiny leaks or diffusing through thin wall polymer tubing when sample lines are used for measurement. Carbon dioxide forms conductive carbonic acid in water. Therefore, conductivity probes are generally permanently inserted directly into the main ultrapure water system piping to provide real-time continuous monitoring of contamination. These probes contain both conductivity and temperature sensors to enable accurate compensation for the very large temperature influence on the conductivity of pure waters.